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OSIfication of the emerging web internet services. 


OSI framework is foundational in Sparkle original investment approach, to identify the change in the internet networking infrastructures leveraging blockchain technology. Our research identifies subsequent changes in the value aggregation or dismissal across the layers. 


From this technology-driven approach, we support the specialization of infrastructure components, while enabling the emergence of valuable enterprise-grade standards and services, across 4 verticals through which these changes are expressed, as causal or consequential factors through their implementation and use cases. 




Distributed applications are offering new properties for a shift in the control layer and user session management, that are currently captured by Devices and OS. Multiple shortcuts are opened, for instance, where the communication sessions between applications are handled by the distributed cryptography of protocol. The formats data for presentation to application layer can rely on smart contracts


We estimated that fundamental change will thus impact User and Developer experience in the release of blockchain based web or mobile applications. 




Blockchain base-layer protocols are offering storage primitives by design, and raise issues of the understanding of the data from composable protocols or application services, generating signatures from on-chain or off-chain state changes. These data assets represent new extractable values, notably for the lead generation technologies and data infrastructure layers.


From a CRM perspective, offering enterprise grade implementation standards regarding identification, tracking and storage standards, will empower readability of the users flows with attribution of contextual user-centric data and actionable data-driven customer acquisition strategies.



Decentralized Finance has been driven by a first wave of retail adoption. Trustless transactions is the core technological contribution of blockchain, likely to transform the financial industry, corporate finance. We invest in research-driven technologies participating in  the standardization of open financial services. 



Decentralized applications are constantly increasing the network traffic, raising challenges for the network scalability and interoperability. The industry has impulsed a trend for the specialization of layers within a modular stack for execution, settlement, storage and data availability. Sparkle supports fundamental choices for architecting this modularity, to ensure a secure and frictionless experience for top of stack applications as well as suitable development methodologies straightening session and transport layers. 


Distributed cryptography technologies are capable to sustain the workload of distributed networks to process the format, weight, fastness of message sending across promising techniques such as Zero-Knowledge proofs.


Open Systems Interconnection model is a conceptual model from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) providing coordination of standards development for systems networking.

smart contracts

distributed running piece of codes to execute function on the blockchain.


systems compiling data from a range of different communication channels, allowing businesses to learn about their target audiences and how to best cater to their needs, thus retaining customers and driving sales growth.

Decentralized Finance

emerging financial technology based on distributed consensus properties to offer permissionless financial services while limiting the need of third parties in the transaction processes.

Zero-Knowledge proofs

method by which one prover can prove to a verifier that a statement is true, while avoiding conveying to the verifier any information beyond the mere fact of the statement's truth.

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